Urine-Based Pathogen Tests

ExceedMDx Genetic Testing offers reliable, accurate, confidential and non-invasive Urine-Based, PCR-based genetic testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) as well as for some other pathogens that are traditionally diagnosed in blood/plasma/serum and synovial fluids. However, there is overwhelming evidence in the scientific literature indicating that the genetic information (DNA and/or RNA) of such pathogens are present in urine.

Please note that none of the tests offered by ExceedMDx Genetic Testing are FDA or Health Canada approved tests (please see our regulatory approvals page). However, these tests are conducted confidentially by experienced scientists using the most up-to-date equipment and procedures in an ISO15189 and OLA accredited laboratory. These tests are made possible due to some key important reasons. Genetic information of such microorganisms are found in urine in low concentrations (this is well documented in the scientific literature), however, our ability to concentrate and isolate nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) from 25 mL to 50 mL of urine using our proprietary technology enables us to then diagnose these microorganisms using the commonly employed molecular biology technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction).

Using Our Service is Easy!

Step 1: Place your order online, by phone or email.
Step 2 & 3: We send you via courier a kit containing a urine collection and preservation device; you add 25 to 45 ml of urine and ship it back to us in the provided return envelope.
Step 4 & 5: Upon receipt of the device containing your preserved urine; we will isolate the total Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA) from this urine and conduct the test(s) you have ordered. You may order more than one test.
Step 6: Once the testing is completed you will be notified of the results of these test(s).

Note that we can do multiple testing from the isolated nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) and consequently if you order a second or a third pathogen test your cost will be lower.

Contact us to discuss these tests

Among the pathogens that can be detected in urine are the following:

  1. Urine-Based Viral Pathogens

    1. High Risk Human papillomavirus (HPV High-risk)
      More than 70 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been identified, and are generally classified as high-risk or low-risk depending on their relationship or lack of relationship with cancer. HPV viruses are predominantly sexually transmitted. High-risk HPV types are a major risk factor for development of cervical cancer. Read more. It has also been reported that HPV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    2. Low Risk Human papillomavirus (HPV Low risk)
      Low-risk HPV types have been associated with the presence of genital warts. Read more. It has been reported that HPV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    3. Herpes Simplex Virus - 1 (HSV-1)
      HSVs are transmitted by close personal contact; HSV-1 is associated with cold sores. Read more.

    4. Herpes Simplex Virus - 2 (HSV-2)
      HSV-2 is associated with genital disease. Read more

    5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
      CMV is a member of the Herpesviruses group. CMV is commonly known as HCMV in humans, or Human Herpesvirus type 5 (HHV-5). HHV5 infection can be life threatening for patients who are immunocompromised (e.g. patients with HIV, organ transplant recipients, or infants). Read more. It has been reported that CMV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    6. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
      EBV is a member of the Herpes family and is one of the most common viruses in humans. The virus has been implicated as having a primary role in multiple autoimmune diseases, several lymphoproliferative disorders and cancers, particularly Hodgkin's disease and Burkitt's lymphoma. The virus occurs globally and causes infectious mononucleosis. Read more.

    7. Parvovirus B19
      Parvovirus B19 causes childhood rash called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum which is commonly called "slapped cheek" syndrome due to the appearance of erythema across the cheeks. The virus is primarily spread by infected respiratory droplets, but some cases of blood-borne transmission have been reported. Parvovirus infection in pregnant women is associated with hydrops fetalis due to severe fetal anemia, sometimes leading to miscarriage or stillbirth. The risk of fetal loss is about 10% if infection occurs before week 20 of pregnancy. Read more. It has been reported that Parvovirus B19can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    8. Enterovirus
      Over 70 serotypes of Enterovirus have been isolated from human. Their normal site of replication is the GI tract, where the infection can be subclinical or result in a mild GI disorder. However, in a proportion of cases, the virus spreads to other organs, causing severe disease which is typical of individual Enterovirus types. Read more

    9. HCV (Hepatitis C Virus)
      HCV infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and Liver Cancer worldwide. Neither a vaccine nor an effective treatment is available for HCV. Unfortunately, many HCV infected patients do not respond to or do not tolerate the IFN-based therapy. Therefore, the number of patients progressing to liver cancer, as a result of HCV infection, is expected to increase over the next 20-30 years. HCV infection is often detected incidentally at the time of blood donation as the acute infection is clinically asymptomatic in most patients. HCV successfully escapes multi-specific host immune responses in the majority of patients which establishes persistent infection. A significant number of persistently infected individuals remain unaware of the infection for decades, until liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and/or liver cancer develop. Read more. It has been reported that HCV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    10. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1 & 2)
      HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. The four major routes of transmission are unsafe sex, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth (vertical transmission). From its discovery in 1981 to 2006, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people. HIV infects about 0.6% of the world's population. Read more. It has been reported that HIV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    11. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
      HBV is mainly transmitted via blood or blood products. In addition, sexual, oral and perinatal infections are also possible. Early symptoms of the infection include appetite loss, vomiting and abdominal symptoms, with approximately 10-20% of those patients developing fever as well as rheumatoid joint and muscle pain. Jaundice, which may be accompanied by itching, will then develop within 2-14 days. Fulminant hepatitis then occurs in about 1% of all infected patients, which in severe cases may be fatal. Of those individuals infected by HBV, 5-10% will develop chronic liver inflammation which may progress to cirrhosis of the liver or in the worst case, primary liver cancer. Read more. It has been reported that HBV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    12. JC virus (JCV)
      The virus is very common in the general population and it is believed that most people acquire JCV in childhood or adolescence. Typically the infection is subclinical in children with healthy immune systems. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils or the gastrointestinal tract, and the virus then remains latent in the gastrointestinal tract. JCV can also infect the tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys, where it continues to reproduce, shedding virus particles in the urine. Also, JCV can cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system. JCV is known to cause the usually fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) by destroying oligodendrocytes in the brain in immunodeficient or immunosuppressed individuals. However, it has not been established whether PML is the result of a primary infection with JCV in a person with impaired immunity or whether it follows reactivation of latent virus. JC virus is also the primary cause of nephropathy (kidney disease) in people who have received a kidney transplant and are on immunosuppressive therapy. Read more. It has been reported that JCV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    13. BK virus (BKV)
      BK viral infections are typically asymptomatic in healthy individuals, however very mild symptoms may appear including mild respiratory infections and fever. Once an individual has been infected the virus disseminates to the kidneys and the urinary tract where it remains for the lifetime of the individual. Infections with BK virus in immunocompromised or immunosupressed patients are much more severe and may involve renal dysfunction. In fact, in kidney transplant patients the immunosupressive drugs required for the transplant may allow the virus to replicate within the graft, resulting in a disease called BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). The mode of transmission of the virus is not clear, however it has been suggested that BKV may be transmitted through respiratory fluids or urine, since infected individuals periodically excrete virus in the urine. This virus can be diagnosed by BKV blood & urine testing, in addition to carrying out a biopsy in the kidneys. PCR techniques are now widely used to identify the virus. Read more. It has been reported that BKV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    14. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
      VZV is one of eight herpes viruses known to infect humans and other vertebrates. VZV commonly causes chicken-pox in children and both shingles and postherpetic neuralgia in adults. Primary VZV infection results in chickenpox, which may rarely result in complications including encephalitis or pneumonia. VZV, like other herpes viruses, remains dormant in the nervous system of the infected person, and in 10-20% of cases the VZV reactivates later in life producing a disease known as herpes zoster or shingles. Serious complications of shingles include postherpetic neuralgia, zoster multiplex, myelitis, herpes ophthalmicus, or zoster sine herpete. Read more. It has been reported that VZV can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    15. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV)
      The virus was first described in 2006 and has since been isolated from human biological samples. The virus gets its name due to its close relationship with the murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). XMRV was recently discovered in human prostate cancers. In addition to prostate cancer, a possible association with chronic fatigue syndrome has been reported, however it has yet to be established whether XMRV is a cause of this disease. Read more.

  2. Urine-Based Parasites

    1. Malaria
      Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease and considered one of the leading causes of death in the world. Malaria is a fatal tropical disease that is caused by a parasite knows as Plasmodium. It is usually spread through the bite of an infected female mosquito. It is estimated that there are 300-500 million new infected cases every year, with 1.5-2.7 million deaths worldwide. Most of the malaria-related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Read more. It has been reported that malaria can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    2. Toxoplasma gondii
      Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled organism which causes Toxoplasmosis, the most common parasitic infection worldwide affecting animals as well as humans. Cats are the only animal in which sexual reproduction of the organism occurs, and for this reason cats are the only domestic animal which has the potential to shed T. gondii eggs. The most common symptoms of the disease are anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, dyspnea, ocular symptoms and pyrexia. As toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to humans it represents a serious health risk for people living in close contact with infected animals. Infection is especially dangerous for people with suppressed immune systems and cancer patients as well as pregnant women. Read more. It has been reported that Toxoplasma gondii can be detected in urine samples. Read more.

  3. Urine-Based Bacteria and Yeast Pathogens

    1. Chlamydia trachomatis
      Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen. It is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection recognized throughout the world. Chlamydia infection may cause urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. In men, Chlamydia is the most common cause of non-gonococcal and non-specific urethritis. Since more than 50% of Chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, they remain undetected, and therefore untreated, for extended periods of time. Untreated Chlamydia infection has been linked to serious long-term complications, including ectopic pregnancies and tubal infertility in women and epididymitis in men. Read more.

    2. Neisseria gonorrhea
      Gonorrhea is the etiological agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhea, which globally causes an estimated 60 million new cases of gonococcal disease annually. It is second only to Chlamydia as the most reported notifiable sexually transmitted disease. Infections with gonorrhea are primarily restricted to the mucus membranes of the endocervix, urethra, rectum, and pharynx. In females, gonorrhea is a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease and may lead to tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain, whereas in males it primarily causes urethritis. Importantly, these infections may often be asymptomatic, thereby contributing to further transmission and maintenance of the disease within populations. Read more.

    3. Candida albicans
      Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions. Candida infections are a problem of growing clinical importance, and Candida has become the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infections. At the most serious level, mortality rates from systemic candidiasis are high. However, the majority of patients, notably immunosuppressed individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, experience some form of superficial mucosal candidiasis, most commonly thrush, and many suffer from recurrent infections. Read more.

    4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)
      TB is a pathogenic bacterial species belonging to the genus Mycobacterium, and is the causative agent of tuberculosis. According to the WHO, 8.8 million active cases of TB are diagnosed each year and of these, almost 2 million die. Worldwide, fewer than 25% of all TB cases are detected. Of utmost concern is the absence of a timely and accurate test for the diagnosis of mycobacterial disease. Early diagnosis is crucial for the prevention of further spread of the disease. Read more. It has been reported that TB can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    5. Lyme Disease
      Lyme disease within North America is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme disease was first recognized in the United States in 1975, after a mysterious outbreak of arthritis near Lyme, Connecticut. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Symptoms of Lyme Disease may include loss of neuromuscular function, limping in hind leg(s), fatigue, loss of appetite, lethargy, paralysis, muscle and joint pain and fever. Serious cases of lyme disease may cause paralysis as well as muscle and heart tissue damage, possibly resulting in death. For the best possible treatment outcome early diagnosis of Lyme disease is crucial. Animals who display any symptoms which could possibly have a diagnosis of Lyme disease should be tested as soon as possible. Due to the seriousness of the disease a sensitive and specific diagnostic test is also necessary to avoid false negative results. Read more. It has been reported that Borrelia burgdorferi can be detected in the urine of infected patients. Read more.

    6. Trichomonas vaginalis
      Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan pathogen of the human urogenital tract. A substantial proportion of infections are asymptomatic, necessitating reliable testing methods. Trichomoniasis is also implicated in various other genito-urinary syndromes, including cervicitis, epididymitis and prostatitis. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis based solely on clinical signs and symptoms is unreliable because the spectrum of infection is broad and other sexually transmitted pathogens can cause similar signs and symptoms. Diagnosis is particularly challenging in men, where infections are characterized by fewer organisms than infections in women. Early rapid diagnosis of this disease is essential to treat the illness before any serious complications arise. Read more.